23 de julho de 2013

A Música & os Animais segundo Erik Satie

A Música & os Animais
(...)

...
Minhas Senhoras,...
Minhas Meninas,...
Meus Senhores,...
- Michelet disse, modestamente, que os animais são os nossos animais inferiores;... o que equivale a dizer que o homem é o irmão superior dos animais...
Não dispomos da opinião dos animais sobre esta questão...
... O que sabemos sobre eles é que são bons cidadãos da natureza;... que têm direitos e deveres;...e que a sua inteligência é considerável...
...Alguns são designados »domésticos »...
Porquê?...Não sei...
...Falou-se muito da inteligência dos animais - são, além dos mais, polidos...
(...)
...Os pintores e escultores representam muitas vezes os animais. Neste caso os artistas são apelidados de «animalistas»...
Os animais, esses, parecem ignorar as artes plásticas...Não restam duvidas...
...
De fato não possuímos nenhuma pintura, nenhuma escultura feitas por um animal...
o gosto deles não está virado para qualquer destas artes...
...
Em contrapartida, a arquitectura e a musica atraíram-nos. O coelho constrói tocas  (terriers) para ele e para o Fox do mesmo nome:...
- O pássaro faz um ninho, maravilha de arte&industria, para ali viver com a família...
...
... poderíamos continuar estas citações até ao infinito ...
... Mas chega quanto á arquitectura...
(...) passemos á musica
... Não podemos duvidar de que os animais amem & pratiquem a música...
...isso é evidente, mas parece que os seu sistema musical difere do nosso...
... é outra escola...
é preciso ouvi-los relinchar, miar, zurrar, assobiar, grasnar,balir,cacarejar,arrulhar, ladrar, urrar,rugir,ronronar,palrar,ganir,...para termos uma ideia da sua arte sonora.
... o reportório e o modo como o utilizam transmite se de pai para filho - por simples imitação.
Muito dotado o aluno não tarda a igualar o mestre...
VI
Desconhecemos as suas obras didácticas...
... Se calhar não as têm...
...O aspeto físico de alguns tipos indica uma aptidão especial..
...o bico, nos pássaros,aproxima se do clarinete...da flauta...
...
em contrapartida, outros tem uma estrutura geral que os impede de sonharem sequer em lançar se numa carreira artística...
...os peixes  - por exemplo...
Os pobres animais nem sequer pensam nisso...
(...)
VIII

è tudo qto tenho a dizer-vos 
...
...Cumpre me Agradecer a vossa benevolente atenção...
Faco-o com prazer...

In  Escritos em forma de Grafonola de Erik Satie!

Novo Estudo - Cães Não distinguem brinquedos pela forma!

Um estudo recente de uma Universidade inglesa abordou a forma como os cães relacionam a palavra e o objecto concluindo que existem diferenças significativas, nomeadamente no que refere o tamanho e a textura e entre a abordagem dos cães e a das crianças! Os cães parecem os cães parecem generalizar  e ligar um nome a um objecto tendo por base o tamanho e a textura.
 "This would suggest that an important factor in the natural structuring of the mental lexicon may be the way in which sensory information is organised in a particular species. The human visual system is tuned to detect object shape for the purpose of object recognition. In our experiments we excluded Gable using scent cues. It seems that his visual system and sensory cues linked to his mouth region are focused not on shape, but on size and texture. Only future experiments will reveal what role scent plays for the dog in generalising words. It is only by comparing other species with humans that we can find out more about the neural and genetic foundations of word reference in language."
Muito interessante este estudo, aqui fica:


Science News

Fetch! First Clear Evidence That Dogs Do Not Naturally Distinguish Objects by Shape

Gable with his toys. (Credit: Sally Smith; van der Zee E, Zulch H, Mills D (2012) Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important? 
 Researchers have provided the first empirical evidence that the way in which dogs relate words to objects is fundamentally different to humans.
Many pet owners marvel at their dog's ability to fetch different objects such as toys on instruction, perceiving this as evidence that the dog 'understands' these words in a similar way to us.
Psychologists and animal behaviour specialists from the University of Lincoln in the UK have shown through a series of unique behavioural experiments that the mental lexicon of domestic dogs is constructed in a substantially different manner to our own.
The findings, published in the peer-reviewed online journal PLOS ONE, may help to advance understanding of the foundations of language in humans and the critical differences with other species.
From the onset of word learning, young children generalise names to new objects on the basis of shape, and continue to do so as adults -- a tendency known as 'shape bias'. This is crucial to language development because it enables children to assign new objects to pre-established classes -- for example, to recognise that a tennis ball and a football both belong to the category 'ball'.
The Lincoln researchers found that when dogs are introduced to new words to refer to new objects, they first generalise based on object size, then on object texture. Unlike humans, they do not appear to naturally discriminate based on shape.
The study was conducted by Dr Emile van der Zee from the University of Lincoln's School of Psychology with Helen Zulch and Professor Daniel Mills from the University's School of Life Sciences.
Dr van der Zee said: "A number of recent studies have suggested that the domestic dog's word comprehension is human-like. Arguments have been made to refute this claim but until now there has been no clear empirical evidence to resolve the debate. Our findings bring a fundamental new insight into this discussion and add to our understanding of the cognitive equipment necessary for true human word learning."
Dr van der Zee and his colleagues worked with a five-year-old border collie called Gable who had shown remarkable abilities to learn new object words.
They devised four different challenges for Gable to determine the extent and nature of his word comprehension.
On a number of occasions a selection of ten different objects known to Gable were placed in an enclosure out of sight of Gable and the researchers, and he was then given a verbal instruction to fetch a particular object from the ten.
Initial tests confirmed that Gable could easily distinguish between toys he knew well.
It was when the researchers introduced new words and novel objects of varying shape, size and texture that Gable began to reveal the absence of shape bias in his choices.
He appeared to make distinctions based first on object size, then, when he had longer to become familiar with the new objects, on the basis of texture. Object shape appeared to have no influence.
The researchers concluded that the mental lexicon -- the long-term mental store containing sound-to-meaning mappings -- appears to be fundamentally different in dogs and humans, both in terms of how it is built (word knowledge development) and in how it operates (word reference quality).
Dr van der Zee added: "This would suggest that an important factor in the natural structuring of the mental lexicon may be the way in which sensory information is organised in a particular species. The human visual system is tuned to detect object shape for the purpose of object recognition. In our experiments we excluded Gable using scent cues. It seems that his visual system and sensory cues linked to his mouth region are focused not on shape, but on size and texture. Only future experiments will reveal what role scent plays for the dog in generalising words. It is only by comparing other species with humans that we can find out more about the neural and genetic foundations of word reference in language."
Besides the significance for researchers interested in the roots of language development, awareness of the absence of shape bias in dogs may also inform refinements to the training programmes for pets, working dogs or assistance animals.

16 de julho de 2013

Boys

Os Meus Rapazes! Boys! handsome working border collies!
 às vezes olho para os meus cães e compreendo o conceito de: " dou graças a Deus"!

Cão Banana

1º Trofeu de Obedience da Chatuska Dog School

"As a rule of thumb, the more excited and emotional a dog becomes, the less capable they are of thinking clearly and acting appropriately. (This is also true of all other animals, including people.) Wise handlers know that when emotions are running high, a cool down period is a good choice to avoid problems." - Suzanne Clothier
in:
http://www.diamondsintheruff.com/behavior.html

Realizou se hoje o  1º Trofeu de Obedience da Chatuska Dog School . Uma prova dificil  quer pela conjugação de exercícios. nos conseguimos o objectivo desta prova nao ter zeros  e baixar o nível de ansiedade e excitação e procurar um sentido de Team work! correu -nos muito bem! e obtivémos 304,75 95,23% Excelente
obrigado Miles! 

In Defense of Dogs - Jonh Bradshaw

John Bradshaw  - in Defense of dogs! um livro muito interessante com uma crítica, até positiva, ao famoso Cesar! vale a pena espreitar!
...Bradshaw says: "I am reluctant to demonise Millan, he has come under a lot of pressure." On a recent tour of the UK, Millan was told his methods were close to breaching Defra guidelines (which forbid harsh training). "He is a smart guy and sees which way the wind is blowing. He is now embracing reward-based methods. All that stuff he spouted about wolves was not based on science." Besides, as Bradshaw observes, there are more "hardcore" trainers out there – such as the massively influential Monks of New Skete in the United States who "sound as if they ought to be the gentlest people in the world" but base their bogus, punitive methods on wolf biology: they urge owners to shake their dogs "because this is what wolf mothers do to keep their cubs in line".
Bradshaw favours humane, reward-based training. The latest science shows that dogs learn to "please their owners". It is wonderful to hear this: he makes one feel fantastically upbeat about being a dog owner (and it is a relief to drop all thoughts of a primitive power struggle)....
aqui fica o link com a critica
http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/jul/17/dog-training-john-bradshaw-animal-behaviour